Application of Bioinformatics in Agriculture 177 effects, optimization of selection programs for several generations with simultaneous utilization of MAS and phenotypic data. (2004) Euphytica, 137(1), 39-54. Because of several reasons Arabidopsis has become the organism of choice for basic studies of the molecular genetics of flowering plants. It covers emerging scientific research and the exploration of proteomes from the overall level of intracellular protein composition (protein profiles), protein structure… The initial project in pathway databases is the Reactome []. A similar FASTA implementation is available at the EBI. In addition to whole genome sequencing, plant sequence data have been accumulating from three major sources: sample sequencing of bacterial artifcial chromosomes (BACs), genome survey sequencing (GSS) and sequencing of expressed se quence tags (ESTs). The early bioinformatics databases emphasized primary data capture. However, multifactorial traits involved in resistance and quality have proven to be extremely difficult to improve, certainly in combination. AgroBioInstitute, Sofia, Bulgaria1 Similarly , SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL are the major primary databases for the storage of protein sequences. Breeders will routinely use computer models to formulate predictive hypotheses to create phenotypes of interest from complex allele combinations, and then construct those combinations by scoring large populations for very large numbers of genetic markers (27) , (7). io.htm, Maize. Bioinformatics Applications in Biotechnology 2. The difference between rdf:datatype=” As on date, there are a number of databases on specific seizes and proteins pertaining to human, animals, plants, bacteria, and other life forms (9). All rights reserved. The resources developed will be used to further expand our understanding of the molecular genetic events underlying fruit development and responses to pathogen infection, and will be made available to the research community for analysis of diverse plant biological phenomena. This understanding is fundamental to allow efficient exploitation of plants as biological resources in the development of new cultivars with improved quality and reduced economic and environmental costs. Opin. in agricultural species), or differences between populations. In simple words, bioinformatics is the application of information technology to study living things (or biological processes) at the molecular level (gene or protein level). This Fall Bioinformatics program is designed for the students of the School of Biochemistry and other life sciences students of Reva University, Bengaluru to learn about the application of programming languages including Python & R in Biomedical data-driven research questions. Bioinformatics is used to identify and analyze more and more biological drug targets; thus expected to greatly increase the breath of possible drugs. GenBank, Fortunately, because all flowering plants are closely related, the complete sequencing of all the genes of a single, representative, plant species will yield much knowledge about all higher plants. This functional analysis of the Arabidopsis genome showed the following proportion of predicted function. Reif J.C., Melchinger A.A., Frisch M. (2005) Crop Sci., 45, 1-7. It neither added nor removed any information from these sequences, nor did it perform any integration of multiple overlapping sequences. Traditional databases are linear catalogues of sequences, genes, proteins, genomes, and genome-to-genome alignments. This deluge of genomic information has, in ∗ Abbreviations: rDNA- recombinant DNA, mRNA – messenger RNA, EST – Expressed Sequence Tag, BLAST – Basic Local Alignment Sequence Tool, NCBI – National Center for Biotechnology Information, cDNA – complementary DNA, dbEST – data base of ESTs, TIGR – The Institute of Genomic Research, QTL – Quantitative Trait Loci, MAS – Marker Assisted Selection. Bioinformatics (What is Bioinformatics? At the beginning of the “genomic revolution”, a bioinformatics concern was the creation and maintenance of a database to store biological information, such as raw nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Both rice and maize, however, have relatively small genomes and are such key elements of the agricultural economies of the developed world that complete genome sequences have been prioritazed. Development of this type of databases involved not only design issues, but the development of complex interfaces, whereby researchers could both access existing data, as well as submit new or revised data (11). Tomato. Other significant characteristics of the maize genome are that it contains multiple copies of most genes and the existance of jumping genes or transposons that make up a large portion of the genome. Each operates by first locating short stretches of identically or near identically matching letters (words) that are eventually extended into longer alignments. It could be predicted that in another decade the idea of biological database devoted to one species will seem as quaint as the idea of a database devoted to a single type of laboratory data seems today. In Bioinfomatics knowledge of many branches are required like 1. As the resolution of genetic maps in the major crops increases, and as the molecular basis for specific traits or physiological responses becomes better elucidated, it will be increasingly possible to associate candidate genes, discovered in model species, with corresponding loci in crop plants. Bioinformatics. edu], all of which relate information on the human genome to data gathered over plants, vertebrates, invertebrates and prokaryotes. Over the last century, research on a small number of organisms has played a pivotal role in advancing our understanding of numerous biological processes. (2005) Briefings in Bioinformatics, 6(2), 178-188. Bioinformatics is the use Since the sequencing of the first complete microbial genome of Haemophilus influenzae in 1995, hundreds of microbial genomes have been sequenced and archived for public research in GenBank. The revolution in life sciences signalled by genomics dramatically changes the scale and scope of our experimental enquiry and application in plant breeding. By the end of the mapping component of this project, a most valuable tool will have been produced: 10,000 unique DNA sequences, likely corresponding to genes, whose physical location in the chromosomes of wheat are known. application of mathematics (e.g., probability and statistics), science (e.g., Finally, recombinant DNA comes from the laboratory and comprises artificial DNA molecules such as cloning vectors. As with other model organisms there is much more to the Arabidopsis genome project than the complete genome sequence. Sen S., G. Churchill (2001) Genetics, 159, 371- 387. The increased productivity was gained through automation, miniaturization, and integration of technologies; applying this approach to the analyses of other biological molecules including mRNA, proteins, and metabolites has resulted in a massive increase in the generation of biological data. NCBI BLAST (also considered as local alignment algorithm) and Smith-Waterman is that a) BLAST is searching query sequence over a database of sequences; and b) BLAST is calculating statistically most probable alignment match, since SmithWaterman is calculating the exact match. By the time the human genome sequence was published in 2001, the rate of DNA sequencing had increased 2,000-fold since the inception of the technology in 1986 (12). This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms (3). However, bioinformatics can now be branded as a bonafide discipline within information technology (3). The data for the polymorphism are analyzed for a possible link with a quantitative trait of interest of the individual phenotypes. Bioinformatics has not only become essential for basic genomic and molecular biology research, but is having a major impact on many areas of biotechnology and biomedical sciences. Any important work that does not begin with Bismillah is imperfect. The complex biological processes that make up the mechanisms of pathogen resistance and provide quality to our crops are now open for a 20th Anniversary AgroBioInstitute – R&D, Classification of databases in the 2004 edition of the Molecular Biology Database Collection (11). 3)Prediction of functional gene product Stiekema, Eds. (2001) Nucleic Acids Res., 29, APPLICATION OF BIOINFORMATICS IN PLANT BREEDING, COMPOSITION AND TOXIC POTENTIAL OF CYANOPROKARYOTA IN VACHA DAM (BULGARIA), INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR OF EUROPEAN GROUND SQUIRREL (SPERMOPHILUS CITELLUS L.), DISTRIBUTION AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE EUROPEAN SOUSLIK (SPERMOPHILUS CITELLUS L.) IN SOFIA VALLEY AND THE ADJACENT AREAS, KARYOLOGICAL DATA ABOUT THE BULGARIAN NATIVE DOG BREED “KARAKACHAN DOG”, the development and implementation of tools that enable efficient access to, and use and management of, various types of information, statistics with which to assess relationships among members of large data sets, such as methods to locate a gene within a sequence, predict protein structure and/or function, and cluster protein sequences into families of related sequences (3). Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research field that combines biology, computer science, mathematics and statistics into a broad-based field that will have profound impacts on all fields of biology. Agricultural Research Service’s http://ars-genome.cornell. 12429. Improved computational speed has been important but a strong argument can be made that the growth of the Internet has been even more crucial for genome scientists. turn, led to an absolute requirement for computerized databases to store, organize, and index the data and for specialized tools to view and analyze the data. As plant model organisms also could be considered: Rice. Recent advances in plant genetics and genomics offer unprecedented opportunities for discovering the function of genes and potential for their manipulation for crop improvement. This is because many aspects of biology are similar in most or all organisms, but it is frequently much easier to study a particular aspect in one organism than in others. Quackenbush J. DNA sequences come in three major forms. The vast amount of data generated by genome sequencing projects is becoming … Varietal Information System 2. Medicago truncatula (commonly known as “barrel medic” because of the shape of its seedpods) is a forage legume commonly grown in Australia. Bioinformatics can be defined as “the application of computational tools to organize, analyze, understand, visualize and store information associated with biological macromolecules” (Luscombe et al., 2001; Preparation of Reports 8. This is impressive, but the process is often quite slow, perhaps taking hours for a search of a large database. Full-featured Web sites such as those at NCBI ( and EMBL ( provide immediate access to enormous amounts of data and analysis tools, free of charge, from anywhere of the globe. #string”>taxon Over 90 different angiosperm genome projects around the world are listed on the United States Department of Agriculture Web site (http://www.usda.go/pgdic/Map.proj) The list includes African projects on beans, corn and fungal pathogens; Australian projects on cotton, wheat, pine, sugarcane, and nine others; at least 24 European projects that include vegetables such as cabbage, cucumber, and pea, and fruits such as apple, peach and plum; and over 50 North American projects as diverse as turf grass, chrysanthemum, almond, papaya grape and poplar. This allows to researchers to follow a genetically mapped trait in maize, such as tolerance to high salt levels in the soil, and move into the corresponding region in the rice genome, thereby identifying candidate genes for salt tole rance. Rudd S. (2003) Trends in Plant Science, 7, 321- 329. Most of this information was used for the purpose of recognition of different cultivars as well as for their comparison – distances and similarities (22). A large amount of information can then be derived from these organisms, providing valuable data for the analysis of normal human or crop development; gene regulation, genetic diseases, and evolutionary processes []. Having in mind the potential power of data hidden within the complete genome scaffolds, or even within the partial transcriptomics data available for more plant species, it is logically to consider that bioinformatics has been integrated as a crucial part of the modern genomics research.